Mind your minerals

Most Americans take vitamins and supplements without tests indicating deficiencies

For those who insist on supplementation, Mike Varshavski, DO, encourages patients to choose vitamins that carry a seal of approval or certification by a trusted, independent organization.


More than 4 in 5 American adults (86 percent) take vitamins or supplements, according to a recent online survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of the AOA. However, only about a quarter (24 percent) of those taking vitamins or supplements received test results indicating they have a nutritional deficiency.

Most people have no need to take vitamins and are wasting their money on supplements that are unlikely to improve their health and may actually harm it, says family physician Mike Varshavski, DO. People with a documented nutritional deficiency can often correct the problem more effectively through their natural diet. Also, some supplements have been shown to decrease the effectiveness of common medications including warfarin, insulin and alprazolam (Xanax), according to Dr. Varshavski.

“Numerous investigations show the alleged benefits are unproven and in the worst cases, vitamins and supplements can be harmful,” says Dr. Varshavski. “In particular, I advise patients that this industry is highly unregulated, so it’s important to research manufacturers to ensure their products actually contain the nutritional supplements advertised.”

AOA policy supports legislation requiring dietary supplements to undergo pre-market safety and efficacy evaluation by the FDA and requests the agency monitor all products marketed for human consumption, including nutritional supplements.

Choose nutrient-rich food instead

As the multibillion-dollar market for vitamins and supplements grows, Dr. Varshavski counsels patients to rethink whether these items should be integrated into their preventive care plan. The money spent on supplements could be used to add high-nutrition foods to their diets, he added, which is more likely to promote overall health.

For those who insist on supplementation, Dr. Varshavski encourages patients to choose vitamins that carry a seal of approval or certification by a trusted, independent organization. While such verifications cannot guarantee efficacy, they can at least assure consumers that the product contains the correct ingredients in the correct amounts without any bacterial or toxic contamination.

Why people take vitamins

The survey of over 2,000 American adults asked them how they decided which vitamins or supplements to take. The top three sources of information were:

  • Recommendations from a physician (51 percent)
  • Their own research, based on personal needs (39 percent)
  • Recommendations from a friend or family member (22 percent)

The survey also found that 13 percent of Americans choose their vitamins or supplements based on what items interest them in stores, while another 13 percent go off of recommendations from a trainer, exercise professional or nutritionist, and 6 percent base their choices on endorsements by celebrities or social media influencers.

“Obviously, there is a great need for real education on this topic, even among health care professionals,” says Dr. Varshavski. “Consumers are also cautioned to avoid trends, such as vaping supplements, until the research is conclusive and to be skeptical of gummy vitamins—which are basically sugar tablets.”

Physicians do often prescribe vitamins and supplements for pregnant patients and people with illnesses like intestinal malabsorption syndrome, Dr. Varshavski says, adding that there is peer-reviewed evidence supporting supplements for some diagnosed conditions.


  1. Jamie Wright DO, MS, FACOOG

    Although I remain a board certified OB/GYN, I transitioned to what might be called Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine about 10 years ago.

    Given that vitamins and minerals are integral to the optimal performance of the body’s metabolic systems, it is hard to imagine that supplementation could be harmful from a population standpoint.

    Human wellbeing (how we feel, how our brain is working, etc.) is the outcome or end result of our body’s physiologic performance; performance which is dependent upon proper, not just sufficient, nutrition.

    As physicians, we are generally taught to think about vitamins from a “deficiency” standpoint, which focuses on the prevention of a certain disease like scurvy.

    But, what impact could we have on our patient’s vitality if we considered optimizing nutritional intake to activate the performance of the underlying metabolic and regenerative systems that rely on these nutrients?

    Could better physiologic performance equate to greater quality of life?

  2. Robert Ciaccia

    I am 66 years young and have been heavily involved in strength training for ’bout 60 years. I take supplements to improve my training. If a particular supplement does not improve my lifts, I stop taking it. That is the basis for my supplement use along with reading about them from periodicals. My diet is extremely important as well. Thanks for listening.

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